The present experimental study investigated the effect of Reading While Listening (RWL) as a means of improving early reading rate and comprehension among adult English language learners. It was hypothesized that the RWL treatment would exploit an innate phonological recoding mechanism as articulated by Jorm and Share’s (1983) and Share's (1995) Self-Teaching Hypothesis (STH). According to the STH, beginning L1 readers must develop phonemic awareness of word specific orthography before new lexical items can be efficiently decoded or stored. The current study was thus predicated upon its own hypothesis that L2 ESL readers acquire and access lexical items in a similar fashion to L1 readers and that development of such item-specific phonemic awareness would be significantly aided by an audio accompaniment to silent reading. A total of 76 ESL learners participated in the study. After six weeks of treatment, results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in both rate and comprehension for RWL groups when compared to control groups. Subsequent theoretical and pedagogical implications are discussed.
The purposes of this study are to provide an overview of the researcher’s study of the human mind, more precisely, the inner voice in English language learners’ (ELLs’) mind, and to show a possible correlation among inner voice experienced among ELLs in L2 contexts, and a different-self or L2 self in terms of socio-culturally mediational property. The central claim in this study the researcher wishes to pursue is that mental action (L2 inner voice) typically develops through “mediational means,” such as language (L2) and tools, and that these mediational means shape the mental action in essential ways. The first half of this article introduces the definition of the inner voice in L2 learning within the context of this study and the basic principles of the sociocultural theoretical foundation in the human sciences. The second half of this article attempts to define and delimit the topic of L2 inner voice, as well as to characterize the L2 inner voice and shows different yet critical roles in ELLs’ mind in the L2 contexts from the analysis of the data collected. Also, this section shows a possible shift of identity as a result of the L2 learning and the target language inner voice development.
Using semi-structured interviews, this study examined six K-12 classroom teachers’ perceptions of the impact of intercultural miscommunication on ESL students’ learning, the major causes of intercultural miscommunication, and strategies for teachers to help ESL students avoid intercultural miscommunication and develop intercultural communicative competence. The results show that intercultural miscommunication affects ESL students’ understanding of American culture and communication with their teachers and peers at schools. It also affects their learning in the classroom. Intercultural miscommunication occurs because of the diversity of cultural meanings embedded in words for communication, the presence of a language barrier in ESL students and their failure to understand common cultural cues, and their lack of exposure to various cultures and expressions as well as their lack of understanding of the way language is utilized for varying purposes. Important educational implications are discussed.
Accreditation bodies have included professional dispositions as part of teacher preparation and candidate evaluation, yet many ESOL teacher educators are understandably confused about how to assess them in their programs. Teacher educators are charged with fostering the qualities and dispositions that will help their teacher candidates be successful in the classroom. Yet how do we change attitudes and dispositions in teacher candidates who may enter preparation programs with a mindset that will be detrimental to diverse students? This paper reflects on the authors’ own practice in addressing professionalism in general and professional dispositions in particular, and suggests effective practices in addressing them, including the importance of modeling the practices during teacher training so teacher candidates can learn to apply them to their own practice. The authors use detailed descriptions, evaluations, and implications of a critical incident of an ESOL teacher candidate’s field experience; offer suggestions and specific activities that can be used by teacher educators to address professionalism; and, based on their experiences as program directors, raise compelling arguments for the use of critical incident analysis and evaluation in teacher preparation programs.