Social media has and will continue to change the way consumers make decisions. According to eMarketer, more than seventy-five percent of the U.S. adult population is online and by 2012 more than one billion people will be posting information online. These developments have changed the way businesses engage with consumers and have begun to set unprecedented new ways of marketing in the online environment. Social networks are becoming a high-priority tool for marketers. For those that have already actualized the power of social media by way of creating links to their social media sites, provide additional customer services for consumers who ‘friend’ or ‘follow’ certain sites, etc. the benefits of followers exposed to their brands and businesses are tremendous. The downside is that it is time-consuming to engage in the process of social media marketing. Another challenge is being able to quantify the effectiveness of using such a medium as most users do not know how to truly measure their success as online marketers. While companies are capitalizing on specific consumer bases in Social Media such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace the African-American consumer languishes as a relatively underserved segment of these marketing campaigns. This exploratory study seeks to look at the evolution of social media marketing as it directly relates to Black consumerism and purchasing power through the application of a uses and gratifications framework. This framework is expected to help communication researchers and educators develop a better understanding the powerful influence of social media on users. Limitations and suggestions for future research are provided.
Using semi-structured interviews, this study examined six K-12 classroom teachers’ perceptions of the importance, challenges, and strategies for developing ESOL students’ intercultural communicative competence (ICC). The results revealed several distinct patterns of interest: a) how teachers perceive the importance of developing ESOL students’ ICC; b) the major challenges in developing their ESOL students’ ICC; and c) strategies that teachers use to help develop their ESOL students’ ICC. Teachers of ESOL students regard the development of ICC as important because it helps ESOL students become familiar with American culture, assists them in communicating with English speakers, and allows them to become more comfortable in their interactions with others. They regard cultural and language issues as the most challenging. Important educational implications are discussed.
Attachment frameworks explain aggression (e.g., physical, verbal, and indirect/social/relational) as a function of attachment style, suggesting that aggression is resultant of early childhood experiences. Theories that posit sex and gender differences, however, argue that aggression is rooted in biological (i.e., sex-linked), evolutionary (i.e., adaptive), and social (i.e., learned) explanations of how men and women differ. Results from this study indicate that sex and gender are unique, and do have differential effects on the relationships among attachment and aggression in romantic relationships. Though the moderating effects of sex and gender are not always strong, findings from this study suggest that biology, evolution, and socialization likely interact and influence variability in attachment and aggression.
UI AWARDS (2012-2013)
UI Outstanding Research Scholar Award
2ND Untested Ideas International Research Conference
June 27 – 29, 2014
The Sheraton Rhodes Resort, Rhodes, Greece