India, which has a different culture and language, is one of the oldest civilizations of the world history today. And predominant way of thinking in India is closely related with occurring philosophical thinking and logic in India. Today, when we say Indian Philosophy and Indian Logic the first question we think about is, if there is a Western way of philosophical thinking in India and study of logic connected to it. Some say there is not. And some say there is, in some ways. Eventually, this question obviously shows us that the study of different cultures and their ideologies is very important for understanding the interaction between civilizations and to have chance to find the differences, similarities and parallelism between their ways of thinking. In this study, we will present Indian Logic in a general way by following Indian systems of thought that are related with logical studying within relations between each other by also considering main aspects of emergence Indian philosophical thinking. One should keep it on mind that both Indian thought and Indian logic are very comprehensive subjects. And it is impossible one to give every information and details on that course. The importance of this study for us is the belief that this study on Indian Logic in general will be an important source for us in the future in the field of the studies on comparing philosophical thoughts and logic.
This article addresses fairness issues in ESL and EFL writing assessments. It begins with a general discussion of the nature and problems of ESL and EFL writing assessments. It further explains the concepts of reliability and validity in the context of rating ESL and EFL students’ writing. This article then discusses the importance of fairness in ESL and EFL writing assessments. Furthermore, it summarizes the research approaches to investigating reliability, validity, and fairness issues in the research of language assessments including ESL and EFL writing assessments.
From the perspective of multi-modernity, China’s ancient academy has formed a tradition of attaching importance to the education for subject’s personality and the pursuit of subject’s academic freedom, autonomy and interaction as well, which is of its spiritual and cultural value for the establishment of modern university education system. China’s modern university should repursue the dream of nurturing talents for the society through subject-oriented institutional innovation. Its effective response to the tradition of ancient academy lies in implementing the academy-institute paralleled education system, giving priority to the education for subject’s personality in general education, and constructing a subject-interacting teaching model.